Portrait of Juana Inés de la Cruz at age 15
Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asuaje y Ramirez was born in San Miguel Nepantla, near Mexico City. She was the illegitimate child of a Spanish Captain, Pedro Manuel de Asuaje, and a Criollo woman, Isabel Ramirez. Her illegitimacy was due to her mother’s refusal to marry.
She learned how to read and write at the age of three. By age five, she could do accounts, and at age eight she composed a poem on the Eucharist. By adolescence, she had mastered Greek logic, and at age thirteen she was teaching Latin to young children. She also learned the Aztec language of Nahuatl, and wrote some short poems in that language.
In 1664, at age sixteen, Juana was sent to live in Mexico City. She asked her mother’s permission to disguise herself as a male student so that she could enter the university. Not being allowed to do this, she continued her studies privately. She came under the tutelage of the Vicereine Leonor Carreto, wife of Viceroy Antonio Sebastián de Toledo. The viceroy, wishing to test her learning and intelligence (she being then seventeen years old), invited several theologians, jurists, philosophers, and poets to a meeting, during which she had to answer, unprepared, many questions, and explain several difficult points on various scientific and literary subjects. The manner in which she acquitted herself astonished all present, and greatly increased her reputation. Her literary accomplishments soon made her famous throughout New Spain.
She was much admired in the vice-royal court, and declined several proposals of marriage, for in the spirit of her mother, she refused to marry. In 1667, she entered the Convent of the Discalced Carmelites of St. Joseph as a postulant. In 1669, she entered the Convent of the Order of St. Jérôme.
In Juana’s time, the convent was often seen as the only refuge in which a female could properly attend to the education of her mind, spirit, body and soul. It was Juana’s only refuge from marriage. Nonetheless, she wrote literature centered on freedom. In her poem Redondillas, she defends a woman’s right to be respected as a human being. Therein, she also criticizes the sexism of the society of her time, poking fun at and revealing the hypocrisy of men who publicly condemn prostitutes, yet privately pay women to perform on them what they have just said is an abomination to God. Sor Juana asks the sharp question in this age-old matter of the purity/whoredom split found in base male mentality: “Who sins more, she who sins for pay? Or he who pays for sin?” For these works, she is regarded as one of the first feminists.
Foolish men who wrongly accuse women, Without seeing that you are the cause of what you fault them for; You want with unthinking presumption to find in the woman you seek… Either love women for what you force them to be, or fashion them according to what you want them to be.
“A three second exposure meant that subjects had to stand very still to avoid being blurred, and holding a smile for that period was tricky. As a result, we have a tendency to see our Victorian ancestors as even more formal and stern than they might have been.”
After studying for three hours, here is what I have gathered Europe is doing in the eleventh through thirteenth centuries
Christianity: Wow man it sure is easier to worship god and not go to hell now this is super duper
Peasants and Nobles: Man we hate corrupt clergy time for like six million reforms that keep failing
Jews: We don't bother anyone just living in these ghettos you make us live in
Muslims: We've just got our empire over here NBD
Papacy: Fuck you monarchs and nobles we be ballin' we run the world
Inquisition: NO ONE SUSPECTS THE SPANISH INQUISITION
Catholic Church: Get out of here Eastern Orthodox church you are annoying here we excommunicated you
Eastern Orthodox Church: Well we excommunicated you too so there
Catholic Church: Let's go on some fucking CRUSADES
Eastern Othodox Church: YEAH
Peasants: Let's kill some Jews
Jews: What the heck guys not cool
Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches: They see us crusadin', they hatin'
Catholic Church: Crusadin' against the Eastern Orthodox Church lol
Eastern Orthodox Church: Are you KIDDING ME
Jews: Ugh we are just going to Eastern Europe bye
Muslims: Wow Christians only one crusade out of like four worked out for you and you lost everything from that one way to go
Christians: Well we're not crusading anymore we're just fighting with all the other religions all the time
Pagans: God dammit
Genghis Khan: Hey guys
y’all would hire me to write a history book, right?
Note Of Note of the Day: From the Associated Press’ Washington-based Assistant Chief of Bureau for photos, J. David Ake:
A protester handed President Barack Obama a note while shaking hands along a rope line in New Hampshire today. Photographer Charlie Dharapak smartly zoomed in so you can read the note for yourself.
Transcript follows for those who can’t:
Mr. President: Over 4000 peaceful protesters / have been arrested / While banksters continue / to destroy the American economy (with impunity) / You must stop the assault / on our 1st ammendment rights [sic]. / Your silence sends a message / that police brutality is ac(ceptable) / Banks got bailed out. / We got sold out.
Lost for 1,600 years, the royal quarters of Cleopatra were discovered off the shores of Alexandria. A team of marine archaeologists, led by Frenchman, Franck Goddio, began excavating the ancient city in 1998. Historians believe the site was submerged by earthquakes and tidal waves, yet, astonishingly, several artifacts remained largely intact. Amongst the discoveries were the foundations of the palace, shipwrecks, red granite columns, and statues of the goddess Isis and a sphinx. The Egyptian Government plans to create an underwater museum and hold tours of the site.
if this happens I am booking a flight to Egypt :)
Oh my God.
holy crap take me there
I swear, out of all the presidents, Andrew Jackson has the most fab hair. It’s the first thing I notice when I pull out a 20 dollar bill or maybe I am just odd like that
I’m sure John Quincy Adams secretly wanted Andrew Jackson’s hair as well; JUST LOOK AT THAT FLOWING MANE
LaLaurie was a sadistic socialite who lived in New Orleans. Her home was a chamber of horrors. On April 10, 1834, a fire broke out in the mansion’s kitchen, and firefighters found two slaves chained to the stove. They appeared to have started the fire themselves, in order to attract attention. The firefighters were lead by other slaves to the attic, where the real surprise was. Over a dozen disfigured and maimed slaves were manacled to the walls or floors. Several had been the subjects of gruesome medical experiments. One man appeared to be part of some bizarre sex change, a woman was trapped in a small cage with her limbs broken and reset to look like a crab, and another woman with arms and legs removed, and patches of her flesh sliced off in a circular motion to resemble a caterpillar. Some had had their mouths sewn shut, and had subsequently starved to death, whilst others had their hands sewn to different parts of their bodies. Most were found dead, but some were alive and begging to be killed, to release them from the pain. LaLaurie fled before she could be bought to justice – she was never caught. You can read a more indepth article on Delphine LaLaurie here.
totally put her crazy in my history of murder timeline